The scapula also articulates with the humerus of the upper arm to form the shoulder joint, or glenohumeral joint, at the glenoid cavity. The scapula is a wide, flat bone lying on the thoracic wall that provides an attachment for three groups of muscles: intrinsic, extrinsic, and stabilising and rotating muscles. Superior border presents a suprascapular notch near the root of coracoid process. The coracoid process is located directly below the lateral fourth of the clavicle and connected to its undersurface by the coracoclavicular ligament. the body of scapula is thin , flat and triangular with two surfaces- ventral and dorsal. The third angle is the inferior angle where the medial and lateral borders meet. and grab your free ultimate anatomy study guide! The scapula is responsible for several motions which are integral to daily movement and smooth upper extremity motion. This procedure involves using a sling to attach the scapula to either the ribs or the vertebral spinous processes, which are bony parts that stick out of your vertebrae. Also present are bursae which help cushion the tissue and decrease friction. This allows the arm to move with the scapula, providing a wide range of movement and mobility for the upper limb compared to the lower limb. Three ligaments are attached to coracoid process: Name the structures attached to coracoid process. Structure. Anteriorly, the scapula is protected by the rib cage and thoracic cavity and posteriorly. Dorsal surface is divided into supraspinous and infraspinous fossa by the spine of scapula. Thank you I’m finding this stuff really helpful I’ve just stopped ready from text books after finding this. Read more. Natalie Joe The acromion of the scapula is a large bony projection on the superior end of the scapula. Sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae. The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a flat triangular bone located at the back of the trunk and resides over the posterior surface of ribs two to seven. Your email address will not be published. posterior surface of the scapula is divided into two fossas by this process. Required fields are marked *. Last reviewed: October 29, 2020 In human anatomy, the acromion (from Greek: akros, "highest", ōmos, "shoulder", plural: acromia) is a bony process on the scapula (shoulder blade). It also articulates with the humerus and clavicle, forming the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint and acromioclavicular joint respectively. The acromion also forms the acromioclavicular (AC) joint with the clavicle. Origin and insertion. Scapula lies on the, three angles( superior, inferior and lateral), three borders ( superior, medial and lateral). Name the ligament attached to the scapula. The scapula is a large, flat triangular bone with three processes called the acromion, spine and coracoid process . The scapula is surrounded by thick layers of muscle that are responsible for the smooth movement of the shoulder joint. It also has the glenoid cavity or socket along this border, a shallow fossa which articulates with the head of the humerus, forming the glenohumeral joint. Scapular dysplasia describes an abnormal morphology of the scapula which can either be primary or acquired, secondary to obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Scapula Coracoid Process Anatomy - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim - Duration: 5:19. nabil ebraheim 55,545 views. It arches over the glenohumeral joint and articulates with the lateral acromial end of the clavicle to make up the synovial acromioclavicular joint. These muscles attach to the surface of the scapula and are responsible for the internal and external rotation of the shoulder joint, along with humeral abduction. It is an important landmark of the skeletal system and a muscle attachment point essential to the function of the shoulder joint. Where is it located? The scapula has two surfaces; on the anterior aspect is the smooth costal surface, which is concave in shape and is majorly taken up by the subscapular fossa. Protraction and retraction of the scapula assist with movement of the pectoral girdle and chest muscles both forward and back, respectively. The most common cause of lesions is due to osteochondroma, a benign cartilage tumour which can cause lesions on the anterior surface of the scapula. Kenhub. Three processes (Spine,acromion and coracoid) Spine of scapula is present on the dorsal aspect of the body of scapula and is triangular in shape. The rotation of scapula happens around the horizontal axis going through the middle of the spine of scapula and sternoclavicular joint.1. Structures attached to coracoid process are: Scapula ossifies from 1 primary centre and 7 secondary centres of ossification ( 2 for coracoid process, 2 for acromion,1 each for glenoid cavity, inferior angle and medial border). Surgery to the axilla, e.g. Posterior oblique view. It is also covered with a lot of soft tissue (i.e. T12 is the superior bone of the TLJ (Thoracic Lumbar Junction). In about 5% of individuals (more commonly males), the separate part (os acromion) is on the right side. This part of the bone is almost rod-like: It acts as a lever for the action of the serratus anterior in overhead abduction of the arm. Scapula in situ. It is the thickest and strongest of the three borders for muscle attachment. At the back of the scapula is the convex and uneven posterior surface which has a protruding ridge of bone (spine of the scapula) that unevenly separates it into two divisions: the superior supraspinous fossa and the much bigger, inferior infraspinous fossa. The scapula is described as having superior, medial, and lateral borders. Another muscle, the Pectoralis minor, comes from the anterior chest wall, to be inserted into the coracoid process of the scapula. supraspinous fossa . There are three groups of muscles that attach to the scapula. Scapula lies on the posterolateral aspect of the thorax extending from 2nd to 7th rib. How to hold scapula in anatomical position? Here the clavicle with its flattened lateral end meets the medial or inside border of the acromion to form a type of synovial joint known as a gliding joint. To the margins of the scapula are attached muscles that aid in moving or fixing the shoulder as demanded by movements of the upper limb. PRotraction - Pectoralis minor & seRRatus anterior At its lateral end the spine gives rise to this flat, angulated projection, the acromion, which stands completely clear of the bone. Overhanging the glenoid cavity is a beaklike projection, the coracoid process, which completes the shoulder socket. The scapula can be seen as a modular component arising from different ossification centres: glenoid/coracoid block, spine/acromion block and blade. Coracoid process fuses with the body of scapula by 16th year and all other centres fuse with body by 20th year. The acromion process is the bony structure on top of the scapula. Bagg and Forrest found a ratio of 4.4:1 during early phase, and 1.7:1 within 80 to 140° of shoulder elevation.Burkhart et al has used the acronym SICK to refer to the syndrome associated … Postero-inferior glenoid dysplasia can be seen in teenagers with a history of shoulder pain and is characterized by a silent dislocation of the glenohumeral joint as the humeral head slips posteriorly when the arm is elevated in adduction and internal rotation. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. coracohumeral, coraoacromial and coracoclavicula. Not only do our quizzes test your knowledge - they can also teach you a topic from scratch! Picture 2. medial border is thin and extends from superior to inferior angle of scapula. Four of these muscles form the rotator cuff, which covers the shoulder capsule (subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor and supraspinatus). scapular spine. Functionally, however, it is considered to be a muscle of scapular motion along with the rhomboids, serratus anterior, serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles. It divides the dorsal surface of the scapula into supraspinous and infraspinous fossae. The most common risk factor for neonatal brachial plexus palsy is shoulder dystocia, an obstructive complication of vaginal delivery usually characterized by impaction of the anterior fetal shoulder against the maternal symphysis pubis. Medial rotation is brought about by simultaneous contraction of levator scapulae, rhomboids, and latissimus dorsi. Inferior to the coracoid process is the glenoid cavity. The clavicle articulates with the scapula here, at the tip of the acromion. As for the muscles that originate from the scapula, they are inserted into the bones to which their actions are to be designated. 5:19. T12 is the first blade-like spinous process (same as the lumbars). For the scapula to smoothly glide over the chest wall (termed the scapulothoracic joint) there are a number a muscles that lie between the ribs and scapular to facilitate this. Upward rotation and downward rotation of the scapula assist with stabilization of the should… in the case of a mastectomy, can sometimes be associated with damage to the long thoracic nerve innervating the serratus anterior muscle. The scapula, or shoulder blade, is a flat, triangular bone located to the posterior of the shoulder. Function. ventral surface is concave and is called subscapular fossa. The most common form is winging of the scapula. Review of the normal ratio of glenohumeral (GH) to scapulothoracic (ST) motion analysed by Doody et al under three-dimensional analysis found that the ratio of GH to ST motion changes from 7.3: 1 in the first 30° of elevation to 0.78: 1 between 90 and 150°. Rhomboid major is a scapula retractor … Hold the bone in such a way that costal surface faces anteromedially and glenoid cavity faces anterolaterally and a little upwards. the area superior to the scapular spine. At the ventral/caudal neck the scapular spine thickens at the acromion process of the scapula. The fibres of rhomboid major resemble a strap muscle. Twelfth thoracic vertebra. Along with the spine, there are two more processes: the coracoid and acromion process. One function of the acromion process is to join with the clavicle to form the acromioclavicular (AC) joint. Posteriorly, the scapula is divided into a supraspinous fossa and infraspinous fossa by the scapular spine. Rhomboid major originates on the spinous processes of T1-T5, before inserting on the medial border of the scapula. Posterior Chest Wall Levator Scapulae Origin Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae Insertion Superior part of medial border of scapula Action Elevates scapula and tilts glenoid inferiorly by rotating scapula Nerve Supply Dorsal scapular (C5) and cervical (C3 and C4) nerves Blood Supply Dorsal scapular artery Learning anatomy is a massive undertaking, and we're here to help you pass with flying colours. It forms the back portion of the shoulder girdle. Surfaces 1. – 2020 The coracoid process is an osseous structure that arises from the superior border of the head of the scapula, projecting forward and curving laterally. The scapula articulates with the clavicle through the acromion process, a large projection located superiorly on the scapula forming the acromioclavicular joint. FIGURE 5-4 Acromion process of the scapula: After palpating the coracoid process of the scapula, move back to the clavicle and continue palpating the clavicle laterally (distally) once again until you reach the acromion process of the scapula. Muscles attached to the three foassae of scapula. Therefore scapular fractures usually occur as a result of high-impact direct trauma and nearly all of the incidences are associated with other much severe and sometimes multiple and life-threatening injuries. T2 superior angle of scapula. Anteriorly, on the costal surface, is the shallow subscapula… It articulates with the clavicle (collar bone) to form the acromioclavicular joint. The rhomboid major is a broad and thin strap-like muscle that connects the scapula to the spinous processes of the vertebral column. Another thick ridge adjoins the lateral border. bones of the shoulder Costal surface or subscapular fossais concave and is directed medially and forwards. specific articulation point for the humerus to form the ball and socket joint of the shoulder. All rights reserved. The scapula is highly mobile and comprises of four parts : a body and three processes namely – spinous, acromion, and coracoid.According to some experts scapula can be divided into three components, viz. Dorsal surfacegives attachment to the spine of the scapula which divides the surface into a smaller supraspin… The following muscle are attached to different parts of scapula. 2. There are two major bursae at the scapulothoracic joint: scapulothoracic (or infraserratus; between the serratus anterior muscle and chest wall) and the subscapularis bursae (between the subscapularis muscle and serratus anterior muscle). Which type of bone is scapula? Fibre orientation. 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Process it extends laterally over the shoulder major is a massive undertaking, trusted... Structure on top of the clavicle to make up the synovial acromioclavicular respectively! The fossa located on the anterior neck muscles form the ball and socket joint of the upper.. Originates on the posterolateral aspect of the scapula ) and the clavicle make... And ligaments syndrome is when there is abnormality at the scapulothoracic joint which leads to non-smooth..
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